High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Raymond-Claude-Ferdinand Aron (14 March 1905, Paris ? 17 October 1983) was a French philosopher, sociologist and political scientist, well known to the broad public for his skeptical analyses of the post-war vogue in France for leftist ideologies that largely took their inspiration from a Marxist tradition. Aron, the son of a Jewish lawyer, studied at the École Normale Supérieure where he met Jean-Paul Sartre (who became his friend and lifelong intellectual opponent). He took 1st place in the Agrégation of philosophy in 1928, the year Sartre failed the same exam. In 1930, he received a doctorate in the philosophy of history from the École Normale Supérieure. In 1939, when World War II began, he had been teaching social philosophy at the University of Toulouse for a few weeks, he left the University and joined the Armée de l'Air. When France was defeated, he left for London to join the Free French forces, and between 1940 and 1944 edited their newspaper, France Libre (Free France).